phosphatidylSerine, also known as serine phospholipids & two acyl serine. In 1942 it was extracted from bovine brain and qualitative by Folch Jordi for the first time. Phosphatidylserine (PS) is one of an important lipids in brain tissue and red blood cells with acidic, exists in the cell membrane and participates in the metabolism of cells.
Phosphatidylserine is  light yellow loose powder or liquid and can be emulsified  in water. Not soluble in ethanol, methanol, soluble in chloroform, ether, petroleum ether.
Currently ,  phosphatidylserine mainly comes from soy,sunflower and Antarctic krill phospholipids.

Soy phosphatidylserine:
With more kinds of other soy lecithin like phosphatidylcholine ,
Phosphatidylethanole ,phosphatidic acid and so on.

Soy Specifications 20% 35% 40% 50% 70% Powder
Month Capacity : 3000kgs
Package :20kgs or 25kgs per drum

Sunflower phosphatidylserine
Same as from soy PS,with more kinds of sunflower lecithin .
Sunflower Specifications 20% 40% powder
Month Capacity : 3000kgs
Package :20kgs or 25kgs per drum

Antarctic krill phosphatidylserine
Besides enrich in antarctic krill lecithin ,and has EPA,DHA
20%  50%PS With DHA ,EPA  liquid
Month Capacity : 2000kgs
Package :20kgs or 25kgs per drum

Phosphatidylserine has advantages as follows

PLD enzyme is manufactured by our independent R & D team

Special soy PC for PhosphatidylSerine(PS)  manufactured by CSHPHARM
Full sources  :soy ,sunflower, antarctic krill
More specifications
GMO free
100% PhosphatidylSerine(PS) ,without any accessories
GMP quality system
Large & stable manufacturing capacity
Customization & Formula PhosphatidylSerine(PS)

The Phosphatidylserine, is also known as 1,2-Distearoyl phosphatidyl serine. This chemical's molecular formula is C42H82NO10P and average molecular weight is 750-850 . What's more, its systematic name is O-{[(2R)-2-(Butyryloxy)-3-(propionyloxy)propoxy](hydroxy)phosphoryl}-L-serine. It is a phospholipid component, usually kept on the inner-leaflet (the cytosolic side) of cell membranes by an enzyme called flippase

Physical properties of Phosphatidylserine are: (1)ACD/LogP: 0.721; (2)# of Rule of 5 Violations: 1; (3)ACD/LogD (pH 5.5): -2.78; (4)ACD/LogD (pH 7.4): -2.89; (5)ACD/BCF (pH 5.5): 1.00; (6)ACD/BCF (pH 7.4): 1.00; (7)ACD/KOC (pH 5.5): 1.00; (8)ACD/KOC (pH 7.4): 1.00; (9)#H bond acceptors: 11; (10)#H bond donors: 4; (11)#Freely Rotating Bonds: 16; (12)Polar Surface Area: 181.49 Å2; (13)Index of Refraction: 1.495; (14)Molar Refractivity: 82.742 cm3; (15)Molar Volume: 283.521 cm3; (16)Polarizability: 32.802×10-24cm3; (17)Surface Tension: 55.14 dyne/cm; (18)Density: 1.359 g/cm3; (19)Flash Point: 292.658 °C; (20)Enthalpy of Vaporization: 92.135 kJ/mol; (21)Boiling Point: 560.299 °C at 760 mmHg; (22)Vapour Pressure: 0 mmHg at 25°C.
You can still convert the following datas into molecular structure:
(2)Std. InChI: InChI=1S/C13H24NO10P/c1-3-5-12(16)24-9(6-21-11(15)4-2)7-22-25(19,20)23-8-10(14)13(17)18/h9-10H,3-8,14H2,1-2H3,(H,17,18)(H,19,20)/t9-,10+/m1/s1

Phosphatidylserine (abbreviated Ptd-L-Ser or PS) is an important phospholipid membrane component (i.e. component of the cell membrane) which plays a key role in cell cycle signaling, specifically in relationship to apoptosis.

Phosphatidylserine Cell signaling
Phosphatidylserine(s) are actively held facing the cytosolic (inner) side of the cell membrane by the enzyme flippase. This is in contrast to normal behavior of phospholipids in the cell membrane which can freely flip their heads between the two faces of the membrane they comprise. However, when a cell undergoes apoptosis phosphatidylserine is no longer
restricted to the cytosolic domain by flippase. When the phosphatidylserines naturally flip to the extracellular (outer) surface of the cell, they act as a signal for macrophages to engulf the cells.

Phosphatidylserine Supplementation and health benefits
Phosphatidylserine Memory and cognition
In May, 2003 the Food and Drug Administration gave "qualified health claim" status to phosphatidylserine thus allowing labels to state "consumption of phosphatidylserine may reduce the risk of dementia and cognitive dysfunction in the elderly" along with the disclaimer "very limited and preliminary scientific research suggests that phosphatidylserine may reduce the risk of cognitive dysfunction in the elderly. FDA concludes that there is little scientific evidence supporting this claim."

The FDA declared that "based on its evaluation of the totality of the publicly available scientific evidence, the agency concludes that there is not significant scientific agreement among qualified experts that a relationship exists between phosphatidylserine and reduced risk of dementia or cognitive dysfunction". The FDA also noted "Of the 10 intervention studies that formed the basis of FDA's evaluation, all were seriously flawed or limited in their reliability in one or more ways", concluding that "most of the evidence does not support a relationship between phosphatidylserine and reduced risk of dementia or cognitive dysfunction, and that the evidence that does support such a relationship is very limited and preliminary".

Early studies of phosphatidylserine on memory and cognition used a supplement which isolated the molecule from the bovine brain. Currently, most commercially available products are made from cabbage or soybeans due to the risk of mad cow disease in bovine brain tissue.[3] These plant-based products have a similar, but not identical chemical structure to the bovine derived supplements; for example, the FDA notes "the phosphatidylserine molecule from soy lecithin contains mainly polyunsaturated acids, while the phosphatidylserine molecule from bovine brain cortex contains mainly saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids".

A preliminary study in rats in 1999 indicated that the soy derived phosphatidylserine supplement was as effective as the bovine derived supplement in one of three behavioral tests. However, clinical trials in humans found that "a daily supplement of S-PS [soybean-derived phosphatidylserine] does not affect memory or other cognitive functions in older individuals with memory complaints."

Phosphatidylserine Sports nutrition
In athletes, phosphatidylserine has been shown to improve performance, endocrine response to exercise stress, and decrease muscle damage in athletes involved in cycling, weight training, golf and endurance running. PS has been reported to be an effective supplement for combating exercise-induced stress by blunting the exercise-induced increase in cortisol levels in a dose dependent manner. PS supplementation promotes a desirable hormonal balance for athletes and might attenuate the physiological deterioration that accompanies overtraining and/or overstretching. In recent studies, PS has been shown to enhance mood in a cohort of young people during mental stress and to improve accuracy during tee-off by increasing the stress resistance of golfers.

Phosphatidylserine Safety
Traditionally, PS supplements were derived from bovine cortex (BC-PS). However, due to the risk of potential transfer of infectious diseases, soy-derived PS (S-PS) supplements have been used as an alternative[citation needed]. Soy-derived PS is designated Generally Recognized As Safe by the FDA. A 2002 safety report determined supplementation in elder people at a dosage of 200 mg three times daily to be safe.

Phosphatidylserine Target for tumor treatment
Bavituximab is a monoclonal antibody directed against phosphatidylserine (PS) expressed on tumor endothelium. Various pathophysiologic processes cause the exposure of PS on the external membrane leaflet. Bavituximab, once bound, starts up host effector activities, such as antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity, causing vessel destruction and enhancing antitumor immunity. Specifically, bavituximab binds PS when recognizing a complex formed by PS and two cross-linked molecules of the PS-binding protein beta 2 glycoprotein-1 (beta 2GP1). Bavituximab is not currently an approved drug, but it has shown promising survival results in previously treated non-small cell lung cancer and other indications.

Phosphatidylserine Dietary sources
The average daily phosphatidylserine (PS) intake from diet in Western countries is estimated to be 130 mg. PS may be found in meat and fish. Only small amounts of PS can be found in dairy products or in vegetables, with the exception of white beans and soy lecithin.

Table 1. PS content in different foods.

PS Content in mg/100 g
Soy lecithin
Bovine brain
Atlantic mackerel
Chicken heart
Atlantic herring
Offal (average value)
Pig's spleen
Pig's kidney
Chicken leg, with skin, without bone
Chicken liver
White beans
Soft-shell clam
Chicken breast, with skin
Pig's liver
Turkey leg, without skin or bone
Turkey breast without skin
Atlantic cod
Whole grain barley
European hake
European pilchard (sardine)
Rice (unpolished)
Ewe's Milk
Cow's Milk (whole, 3.5% fat)

Phosphatidylserine Metabolism

Biosynthesis of phosphatidylserine

Phosphatidylserine is biosynthesized in bacteria by condensing the amino acid serine with CDP (cytidine diphosphate)-activated phosphatidic acid. In mammals, phosphatidylserine is produced by base-exchange reactions with phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine. Conversely, phosphatidylserine can also give rise to phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine, although in animals the pathway to generate phosphatidylcholine from phosphatidylserine only operates in the liver.

Phosphatidylserine (PS) is an amino acid derivative compound that is fat-soluble and found in high amounts in the brain, where it contributes to cognitive functioning. Found in high amounts in fish, it may improve memory in the elderly and lowers Cortisol.

Phosphatidylserine Summary
Phosphatidylserine, or PS, is a compound similar to a dietary fat which is highly prevalent in human neural tissue. It can be synthesized as well as consumed through the diet , but further benefits can be gained through supplementation.
It is vital for cognitive function, but is not necessarily needed as the body synthesizes it. However, Phosphatidylserine (PS) supplementation in older individuals seems to improve memory and cognitive capacity.

Phosphatidylserine how to take
A standard dose of phosphatidylserine (PS) is 100mg, taken 3 times a day to total 300mg daily. This dose seems to be effective as a daily preventative against cognitive decline, and 100mg once daily may provide some degree of benefit (but may be lesser than 300mg).
Studies in children and adolescents for the purpose of attention improvement tend to use 200mg, and a dose of 200-400mg has been used in adult non-elderly humans with success. Animal evidence tends to use a dose correlating to 550mg as well.

Phosphatidylserine Human Effect Matrix

The Human Effect Matrix looks at human studies (it excludes animal and in vitro studies) to tell you what effects phosphatidylserine has on your body, and how strong these effects are.

Phosphatidylserin LEVEL OF EVIDENCE
Robust research conducted with repeated double-blind clinical trials
Multiple studies where at least two are double-blind and placebo controlled
Single double-blind study or multiple cohort studies
Uncontrolled or observational studies only

Phosphatidylserin Studies Excluded from Consideration

Phosphatidylserine confounded with Fish Oil (not a complexed molecule, just the two taken alongside each other)
Duplication is already in the table
Injections, likely not practical

Phosphatidylserin Sources and Structure

Phosphatidylserin Sources

Phosphatidylserine (PS) is a naturally occurring phospholipid that exists in all species, and comprises a portion of the phospholipid pool in human brain (15%), lungs (7.4%), testes (6.4%), kidneys (5.7%), liver (3.8%), skeletal muscle (3.3%), heart (3.2%) and blood plasma (0.2%) with an estimated 60g total PS storage in the body where half exists in neural tissue.[6][7] The average dietary intake is said to be approximately 130mg daily.

Phosphatidylserine (PS) is found in:

Soy lecithin at around 3% of total phospholipids
Neural tissue (with past studies sourcing supplemental PS from bovine cortex, has since fallen out of favor due to risk of bovine spongiform encephalopathy)
Krill Oil is said to be a source, but the majority of the phospholipids (which, as a group, have been confirmed repeatedly) are from Phosphatidylcholine and a PS content per se has not been confirmed

Phosphatidylserine Structure

Phosphatidylserine (PS) is a structure somewhat similar to a triacylglyceride (storage form of dietary fat), but with two fatty acids (diacylglyceride) with the final bonding site on glycerol occupied by a phosphatadic acid molecule and serine amino acid. Various compounds may be called phosphatidylserine given they have that one serine containing group; the other two fatty acid chains are irrelevant to the naming, but not necessarily the function, and may differ depending on source.
Phosphatidylserine is a triglyceride structure with one fatty acid replaced with a phosphatic acid and a serine amino acid, and is a phospholipid structure due to this

Phosphatidylserine Biosynthesis and Biological Relevance

Phosphatidylserine concentrations in the brain appear to decline with age when measuring rat cerebral slices with no significant alterations in red blood cells in humans (despite some alterations present in rats during the aging process).

After synthesis, PS is then used as a structural component of a cell's lipid bilayer (cell membrane) with the serine molecule facing inwards. When included in the structure of the cell membrane, it seems to contribute to and increase cell fluidity and have positive influences on the enzymes Na+/K+ stimulated ATPase (upregulation) and acetylcholinesterase (downregulation) which may lead to its effects on cognition. There was an upper limit of enzymatic activation noted at 1umol/mg membrane protein, but this cannot be easily translated into an upper dosage.

Phosphatidylserine is known to activate Protein kinase C (PKC) with a potency greater than other phospholipids and may stimulate sodium-potassium ATPase channels.

Phosphatidylserine Variants and Formulations

The first source of supplemental phosphatidylserine was that from the bovine cortex, and while on a molecular level and for some practises there are no significant differences between bovine cortex and Soy lecithin based phosphatidylserine the reduction in cortisol seen with bovine cortex PS injections and oral supplementation does not appear to occur with soy lecithin based PS when orally supplemented.
Relative to the commonly supplemented soy lecithin based phosphatidylserine, the PS derived from bovine brain tissue is structurally the same yet implicated in reducing cortisol (maybe due to other compounds in the extract), but the bovine brain derived PS is no longer used due to concerns over Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease
Phosphatidylserine has recently started to be extracted from sunflower oil, and at this moment in time there do not appear to be much research into its effects in living organisms nor a known reason to supplement over soy lecithin based phosphatidylserine.
There is currently a lack of information on phosphatidylserine sourced from sunflower oil

Phosphatidylserine Neurology

Phosphatidylserine Attention, ADHD, and Cognition
2 months of supplementation of 200mg Phosphatidylserine (PS) appears to improve symptoms of global and subscale attention deficit and hyperactivity disorders in children with ADHD, and secondary to improving symptoms of ADHD an improvement in short-term auditory memory and impulsivity was noted.

Other studies in children with ADHD have noted promise when pairing PS with Fish Oil supplementation, with some using a phosphatidylserine structure with the fish oil fatty acids (EPA and DHA) attached to the glycerol backbone(study duplicated in Medline) and appears to enhance erythrocytic fish oil fatty acid levels to a level greater than fish oil itself (a phenomena seen with Krill Oil; fish oil fatty acids bound as Phosphatidylcholine).

In otherwise healthy young adults given 400mg PS for 2 weeks, a significant improvement in processing speed (20%) and accuracy (13% more correct responses, 39% less wrong responses) is noted relative to placebo and independent of mood state.

Phosphatidylserine appears to promote attention and reduce symptoms of ADHD, and when the phosphatidylserine molecule contains the Fish Oil fatty acids then it may promote attention to an even greater degree

Phosphatidylserine Stress

Stress has been noted to be reduced with doses as low as 60mg in otherwise healthy men, although this study is confounded with the inclusion of Fish Oil (and stress was only significantly reduced at rest in high stressed persons); it has been replicated elsewhere with phosphatidylserine in isolation with 42 days supplementation of 200mg phosphatidylserine (as protein bar) where induced stresses were less than control (and associated with less beta-1 wave function in the right hemisphere). This same dose and supplementation vessel has been used in young golfers given 200mg phosphatidylserine for 42 days, where a 21.6% increase in drive accuracy (percentage of straight shots) was thought to be secondary to a stress reducing effect.

Phosphatidylserine supplementation appears to exert anti-stress effects in otherwise healthy persons without stress disorders following prolonged supplementation, and this appears to possibly be independent of the classical biomarkers of stress reduction (cortisol, heart rate)

The anti-stress effect appears to be somewhat different than other supplements and not 100% reliable, and it is uncertain how phosphatidylserine is doing this. It does, however, appear to extend to both soy lecithin based and bovine cortex based phosphatidylserine

Phosphatidylserine Acetylcholine

Phosphatidylserine supplementation has been noted to increase acetylcholine levels in aged rats in vitro which does not appear extend to young rats.

Using cortisol as a biomarker, stress levels during cognitive testing appear to be unaffected despite improvement in performance and some studies in healthy individuals fail to find any salient effect. Regardless, studies that measure heart rate changes during stress fail to find a significant influence of supplementation.

Phosphatidylserine Cognitive Decline and Dementia

Several studies have noted that prolonged supplementation of phosphatidylserine to rats during the aging process can reduce the rate of cognitive decline or otherwise show trends to reverse it in the range of 15-50mg/kg daily.

It has been noted that administration of 200mg (intravenous injection) of phospholipids to patients with Alzheimer's is able to increase dopamine and serotonin metabolites, which are normally reduced in cognitive decline.

Phosphatidylserine has been found to preserve glucose metabolism during Alzheimer's disease by 13.5–16% following ingestion of 500mg phosphatidylserine which may be a mechanism underlying its observed benefit in some instances.

In studies assessing cognitive decline in Alzheimer's via the MMSE, there appears to be a collection of studies suggesting no effect with 500mg for 3 weeks but benefit with 300mg of phosphatidylserine from bovine cortex for 8 weeks or 12 weeks and has been noted to have benefit with 400mg over 6 months to a level greater than Pyritinol. One study using the MMSE as a rating scale in elderly persons with age-related cognitive decline (but not diagnosed Alzheimer's) has also noted an improvement with 300mg bovine cortex phosphatidylserine.
In persons with age-related cognitive decline associated with pathology, there appears to be a large body of evidence to support the role of bovine cortex phosphatidylserine in alleviating symptoms at 300mg daily. However, there is a lack of evidence to support the role of Soy lecithin-based phosphatidylserine in this role and some suspicion that it may not be as effective

In other cognitive disease states, persons with Parkinson's disease given bovine cerebral phosphatidylserine note some degree of improvement on EEG parameters and in general dementia 300mg of bovine cortex phosphatidylserine has noted some degree of benefit within 3 weeks of a 6 week trial and has improved memory and depressive symptoms in persons suffering from geriatric depression.

Phosphatidylserine Memory and Learning

PS supplementation has been implicated in increased spatial memory in aged rats at 50mg/kg (human equivalent of 8mg/kg or 550mg for a 150lb person)[44] and has been noted at lower concentrations (5-20mg/kg) when injected into aged rats, where improvements in grooming and behaviour retention are noted.

Studies in non-aged rats (to establish a Nootropic effect rather than cognitive rehabilitative effect) using 50mg/kg bodyweight for 27 days was able to significantly enhance brightness discrimination (indicative of memory formation) without significantly affecting anxiety or depressive symptoms.

There appears to be a memory promoting effect of phosphatidylserine supplementation in rats that occurs in cognitively damaged models, aged rat models, and young rats as well; the dosage used in these rat studies is higher than usual (around 500mg for a non-obese human) but not unfeasibly high
The first report of cognitive improvment in elderly humans with aging associated mental impairment (non-pathological) was 3 months of 300mg soy-based phosphatidylserine (PS), in which scores on the Wechsler Memory test improved with particular improvement in visual memory; this was later replicated with 300mg PS over 12 weeks and two studies have noted that PS supplementation appears to aid in face recognition in elderly persons at this dose.

Other studies note that 100 or 300mg daily for 6 months has failed to outperform placebo on the Rivermead behavioral memory test (test catered for 'everyday memory problems') while scores on the Hasegawa dementia scale (HDS-R; used for dementia assessment similar to the MMSE) improved relative to placebo, and MMSE score improved as well. Improvements in the former parameter has been noted elsewhere in elderly persons with memory complaints when using a phosphatidylserine molecule complexed with DHA[53] or phosphatidylserine from bovine cortex at 100mg but soy based phosphatidylserine up to 600mg daily (6 months) has been noted to fail with similar methodology.

In studies that assess more quantifiable parameters, supplementation of PS (where Fish Oil fatty acids were added to the structure) reported an improvement in immediate word recall by 42% in elderly subjects.

Phosphatidylserine Exercise and Performance

Phosphatidylserine Interventions

During intermittent moderate intensity cycling in which soy based phosphatidylserine was consumed for 10 days at 750mg noted that time to exhaustion increased by 29+/-8% when cycling at 85% intensity, and that this improvement was independent of any changes in fat oxidation or cortisol changes. Elsewhere, supplementation of this dose of soy based PS has failed to alter the exercise-induced changes in lipid peroxidation, muscle soreness, or inflammation.

In healthy elderly adults, there appears to be benefit associated with long term supplementation of phosphatidylserine which seems to be more catered towards preventing dementia; benefits to practical cognition, such as working memory and cognition in everyday situations (or at least rating scales thought to be indicative of this), seems somewhat mixed and may be restricted to PS complexed with fish oils

Phosphatidylserine Interactions with Hormones

Phosphatidylserine Testosterone

400mg PS delivered via a protein bar format (some nutrient confounds) for 2 weeks in college-aged males does not alter the fluctuations of testosterone during weight-bearing exercise.

Phosphatidylserine Cortisol

It was initially reported that phosphatidylserine obtained from bovine cortex was able to reduce the exercise-induced increase in ACTH and cortisol following intravenous injections of 50-75mg which was later replicated with 10 days supplementation of 800mg bovine cortex phosphatidylserine in otherwise healthy men subject to exercise.

Studies using Soy lecithin-derived phosphatidylserine noted that 400mg PS delivered via a protein bar format (some nutrient confounds) for 2 weeks in college-aged men does not appear to significant alter exercise-induced changes in cortisol nor ACTH and 750mg of PS daily for 10 days has twice failed to significantly influence cortisol/ACTH in otherwise healthy exercising men.

This apparent discrepancy appears to be either due to other molecules that may coexist with bovine cortex but not soy lecithin (eg. sphingomyelin) or the fatty acids bound to the glycerol backbone in the relative sources.

Phosphatidylserine derived from the bovine cortex appears to reduce cortisol in high concentrations, there is no evidence to support the role of soy based phosphatidylserine in this role and evidence to actively disprove an ability of PS to suppress cortisol or ACTH

Phosphatidylserine Nutrient-Nutrient Interactions

Phosphatidylserine Fish Oil (Coingestion)

Fish Oil (the fatty acids EPA and DHA) are components of phosphatidylserine (PS) derived from bovine cerebral cortex but not from soy lecithin, and some authors mention that combination therapy of both fatty acids with PS would lead to better results. Both phospholipids and polyunsaturated fatty acids are constituents of lipid membranes,[58] and are thought by some to work synergistically.

300mg phosphatidylserine paired with 37.5mg of fish oil fatty acids has been noted to improve delayed word recall in older individuals by 42% relative to baseline (no placebo control) with immediate recall not affected nor was any other tested parameter (attention, reaction time, working memory, etc.);[2] this effect size may be larger than it actually is due to the low sample size (n=8).

In adult men (non-elderly) using capsules containing fish oil (25% DHA, 5% EPA) and phosphatidylserine (20-22%) at 300mg daily (total PS 60-66mg) noted reduced stress levels in subjects who reported higher baseline chronic stress levels; those with lower stress failed to see an effect to chronic stress, but both groups experienced a lessening of percieved stress during testing (to a lower magnitude in the low stress group).

Phosphatidylserine Fish Oil (Complexation)

Phosphatidylserine, as a phospholipid, may be bound to two fatty acids; connection of the phosphatidylserine molecule to Fish Oil fatty acids (EPA and DHA) results in a complexed form that has been used in a few studies with benefit.

Phosphatidylserine Ginkgo Biloba

Ginkgo biloba is a cognitive enhancing herb, with at least one study noted that despite inefficacy with 120mg of ginkgo that complexing this herb with phosphatidylserine results in enhanced memory, with a degree greater than that seen with ginkgo complexed with Phosphatidylcholine (which also outperformend ginkgo in isolation).

Phosphatidylserine Safety and Toxicology

Phosphatidylserine General

Supplementation of up to 600mg phosphatidylserine (soy based) for 12 weeks in elderly persons has been noted to not be associated with any adverse effects.[60]

Phosphatidylserine Creutzfeldt–Jakob Disease

Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (CJD) is the human version of mad cow disease, a neurodegenerative disease caused by infectious proteins known as prions. A risk factor for CJD is consuming neural tissue of other living species, and it was believed that extracting phosphatidylserine from bovine cortex (main source of PS in the past) ran a risk of CJD.

Despite no reported cases of CJD from phosphatidylserine supplementation, modern supplements use PS derived from Soy lecithin due to a higher safety profile.